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Diabetes Mellitus is a term which defined as a metabolic disorder of various aetiology categorized by chronic hyperglycaemia with conflicts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism causing from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.

Diabetes effect includes long– term damage, defective and failure of numerous organs. It may present with specific symptoms such as thirst, blurring of vision, polyuria, and weight loss. In its most extreme simple forms, ketoacidosis or a non–ketotic hyperosmolar state may grow and lead to stupor, coma, and in lack of effective treatment, death. In many times indications are not simple, or maybe absent, and consequently, hyperglycaemia abundant to cause pathological and functional variations may be existing for a long time before the diagnosis is prepared.

Paediatric Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Emerging focus on diabetes research

Diabetes education and its risk factors

Diabetes Signs & Symptoms

Pathophysiologic variation is a change in the task as distinguished from a structural defect. Diabetes occurs when there is an in equality between the demand and manufacture of the hormone insulin. Pathophysiology of diabetes is that in this circumstance the immune system outbreaks and terminates the beta cells of the pancreas which produce insulin. There is an insufficiency of beta-cell leading to complete insulin deficiency. However in type 2 diabetes, there is a comparatively slighter deficiency of insulin but not a whole deficiency. This means that the body is impotent to harvest appropriate insulin to overcome the demand. Gestational diabetes is the third type of diabetes. It is caused when there are excessive counter-insulin hormones of pregnancy. This paves the way to a state of insulin resistance and high blood sugar in the mother. There may be faulty insulin receptors.

Physiology of the endocrine pancreas

Recent advances in genetics of diabetes

Pathogenesis of diabetes

Diabetic myelopathy

Pathophysiology of hypoglycaemia

Physiology of Diabetes Type 1

Physiology of Diabetes Type 2

Alpha and Beta cells

One of the best eradication measures one can adopt for diabetes is undertaking diabetic screening tests. Such screening is useful for detecting diabetes at an early stage and consequently taking appropriate measures to curb the further development of diabetes-related complications. Screening tests can be performed for the eyes (retinopathy screening), nerves, kidney, blood pressure, cholesterol, etc. A variety of tests are also available for diagnosing or distinguishing between certain types of diabetes including HbA1c test, C-peptide test, antibodies test, etc.

Prediabetes Screening

Retinopathy Screening

Cholesterol Screening

Blood Pressure Screening

Kidney Disease Screening

Nerve Damage Screening

Screening Tests

The most common form of Diabetes is type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, and type 1 diabetes is due to autoimmune b-cell destruction, typically leading to a lack of insulin. Whereas type 2 diabetes is non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is due to a progressive loss of b-cell insulin secretion commonly on the background of insulin resistance. Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) is activated by pregnancy and is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Specific types of diabetes due to other effects, e.g., monogenic diabetes syndromes which is a neonatal diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), diseases of the exocrine pancreas; such as cystic fibrosis and pancreatitis, and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes by using glucocorticoid use, in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, or after organ transplantation.


Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

Latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA)

Neonatal Diabetes

Steroid-induced diabetes

β-cell Dysfunction

Insulin Deficiency

Insulin Resistance

Diabetic Nephropathy is also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and it is the chronic loss of kidney function primarily because of high blood glucose level. About 40% of the individuals affected with Diabetes Mellitus, eventually develop DKD. Diabetic Nephropathy is characterized by the loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria or albuminuria) and by a decline in the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate of the kidneys. It is one of the most common causes of End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) which can ultimately lead to kidney failure. A proper diet, healthy lifestyle, regular checking of blood glucose and lowering blood pressure can help prevent diabetic nephropathy and protect kidney function.




Urinary Incontinence

Causes & Associated Risk Factors

Complications of Diabetic Kidney Disease

Endocrinology is one of the body’s two ruler communication systems. A system in which a group of secretory cells secretes a potent chemical transmitter substance which is called as a hormone, into the blood. The transmitter is then carried by the blood to the target cells where a reaction is provoked. It differs from the other systems. The Endocrine system is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis.

Endocrinology and Metabolism

Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Disorders

Molecular Endocrinology

Endocrine Disorders

Of the many risk factors of diabetes, Genetics play a very strong role in the development of both types of diabetes. Individuals with a family history of diabetes are more likely to develop the condition than those without any diabetes in the family. Few types of diabetes like MODY is can be directly inherited. Studies have shown that Type 2 diabetes has a very strong genetic component and the likelihood of developing it if parents and/or siblings are already having the condition is far more as compared to Type 1 diabetes.

Genetic Factors in Type 1 Diabetes

Genetic Factors in Type 2 Diabetes


Risk of Inheritance

Role of Genetics in Treatment and Prevention

Advancements in Genetics Research

Often, raised blood glucose can damage the sensation in the feet, affecting blood circulation to the area without which there usually tends to be delay in healing of the cuts and sores. When these symptoms are kept untreated, various complications are likely to arise like foot ulcers, foot infections and foot deformation and might also lead to amputation. Hence, it is extremely essential to take proper care of the foot, undergo regular foot check-up and keep diabetes under control.

 Diabetic Foot ulcers

Diabetic Foot Amputation

Diabetic Foot Pain

Charcot’s foot


Miscellaneous Diabetic Foot Damage

Foot care in Diabetes

Often, raised blood glucose can damage the sensation in the feet, affecting blood circulation to the area without which there usually tends to be delay in healing of the cuts and sores. When these symptoms are kept untreated, various complications are likely to arise like foot ulcers, foot infections and foot deformation and might also lead to amputation. Hence, it is extremely essential to take proper care of the foot, undergo regular foot check-up and keep diabetes under control.

Diabetic Foot ulcers

Diabetic Foot Amputation

Diabetic Foot Pain

Charcot’s foot


Miscellaneous Diabetic Foot Damage

Foot care in Diabetes

Nutrition forms a very major part of diabetes care. Balancing all the right nutrients in the right amount helps in maintaining a healthy diet. Often a diabetic diet is recommended to individuals with diabetes which is naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and carbohydrates. The objective of such nutritional therapies is to attain and maintain optimal metabolic outcomes by keeping the blood glucose level as close to the normal range as possible. Dietary fibres also form a crucial part of the diabetic diet as these moderates how the body digests and helps control blood sugar levels.

Diabetic diet

Low-Carbohydrate Diet

Weight-loss Diet

Essential Macronutrients

Essential Micronutrients

Dietary Fibre

Reading Food Labels

Foods to Avoid

Paediatric or juvenile diabetes is chronic type 1 diabetes which affects the young population, particularly children under the age of 15. Such diabetes brings about lifetime dependence on exogenous insulin. Signs and symptoms of paediatric diabetes are like other types of diabetes and children are more likely to develop the disease if there is a family history of diabetes. Complications of pediatric diabetes also generally include heart diseases, nerve damage, nerve, kidney and eye damage, skin conditions, osteoporosis, etc. Actual diagnosis, treatment, and management are possible remedies for this type of diabetes.

Causes & Symptoms

Risk Factors


Diagnosis & Treatment


Pediatric Diabetes Research

Complications co- related with diabetes are often acute or chronic. Acute complications, though short-termed, can often present instant danger and thus needs to be treated at the earliest possible. These short-term complications are mainly characterized by the hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic state of the body in which it is unable to function properly. Acute complications chiefly consist of diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma and so on. These complications if properly treated, usually results in full recovery, however, might prove fatal in case of delayed treatment.



Dead in bed syndrome

Diabetic coma

Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic coma

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic nonketotic syndrome

Apple Cider Vinegar

The major compound in ACV is acetic acid and is trusted to be accountable for many of its health benefits Taking 2 tablespoons before bedtime can reduce your morning fasting sugar levels

Fibre and Barley

Eating fibre drops blood sugar and insulin concentrations.  The suggested volume of fibre is around 30 grams per day.  Most Americans acquire around 6-8 grams, which is not nearly enough


Mainly found in brewer’s yeast, scarcity in chromium injuries the metabolism of glucose.  Evidence supports chromium for low blood sugar and A1C levels.


Those with diabetes are usually found to be zinc deficient.  Studies have shown zinc intake can reduce blood sugar and A1C, have an antioxidant effect, low blood sugar and even help treat some of the complications related to diabetes.

Aloe Vera

The simpleton of Aloe Vera is known for its purge effect.  Therefore, validate to get the juice of the gel! There is raising suggestion for use of the gel, which is the mucilaginous material inside the leaves.




Complications of Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetes also affects the women and men in nearly equal numbers however; it affects women differently than men. When compared with diabetic men, diabetic women have a higher risk for heart disease, lower survival rates and also a poorer quality of life after heart attack, higher risk for blindness. Depression also affects twice as many women as men, also raises the risk for diabetes in women. It safe for women with diabetes to get pregnant, If it is whether type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you can have a healthy pregnancy. If you have diabetes and you want to have a baby, then you need to plan ahead, before you are pregnant. As per statistics about 15 million women’s in the United States have diabetes, or about 1 in every 9 adult women and the study also indicates the death rate for women with diabetes didn’t improve. The death rate was higher among in women, but there has been a slight shift in sex distribution of diabetes showing higher death rates in men and also the difference in death rates between women who had diabetes and those who didn’t had diabetes is more than is  doubled. The studies emphasize how diabetes affects men and women differently. It’s difficult to diagnose some of the complications of diabetes in women.

One of the most important features of diabetes management is the self-management of diabetes which can be successfully achieved, and complications prevented with the help and support of the nursing team. Diabetes specialist nurses plays a vital role in screening and testing diabetic persons, detecting early onset of diabetes, assessing nutritional needs of the patient, promoting self-management, providing prevention advice, spreading awareness on diabetes and providing health coaching. In this exposure, it is extremely necessary for nurses to be well educated, trained and skilled adequately to be able to proficiently deliver care, support self-management and provide advice to diabetic persons.

Diabetic Nursing Education

Diabetic Nursing Management

Diabetic Nursing Care

Diabetic Nursing Assessment

Nursing Priorities

Nursing Interventions

Discharge and Home Care Guidelines

Cardiovascular disease: Diabetes adequately increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries.

Nephropathy: The kidneys carry millions of tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from the blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Serious damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Alzheimer's disease:  Type 2 diabetes may have chances of increasing the risk of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. The poorer blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. Although there are many theories as to how these disorders might be connected, none of them has yet been proved.

Retinopathy: Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina possibly leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.

Foot damage: Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can develop severe infections, which often heal poorly.

Depression: Depression symptoms are common in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Depression can affect diabetes management.

Neuropathy: Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels that nourish nerves, especially in legs. This can cause prickling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.

Skin conditions:  Diabetes may leave you more receptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.  Once, bacterial infections were life threatening, especially for people with diabetes.

Obesity is a state in which a person has excess body fat. Obesity can rise a person’s risk of diseases and health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. It is a common problem and a major public health concern, both in the United States and worldwide. Obesity is most commonly caused by an amalgamation of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility.  A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder. The vision that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not medically supported. On average, obese people have greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

A metabolic disorder occurs when the metabolism process fails and causes the body to have either too much or too little of the essential substances needed to stay healthy. Metabolic disorders can take different many forms a missing enzyme or vitamin that’s necessary for a major chemical reaction, abnormal chemical reactions that hinder metabolic processes and disease in the liver, pancreas, endocrine glands, or other organs involved in metabolism. Metabolic syndrome can be present at birth, and many can be identified by routine screening. If a metabolic disorder is not identified early, then it may be diagnosed later in life, when symptoms appear. Specific blood and DNA tests can be done to diagnose genetic metabolic disorders. The gut microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms that present in the human digestive system, also has an important part in metabolism and generally has a positive function for its host.

Classification of body fat and fat distribution

Diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome



Medical management

Surgical management



Gastro Paresis is also known as delayed gastric emptying. It is a condition which affects both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients in which the stomach requires time to empty its contents. If glucose levels are high for a long period of time it may lead to the damage of vagus nerve. The vagus nerve has complete control in the movement of food through the GI tract. If the vagus nerve gets damage or doesn’t work properly, the muscle of the stomach and intestine gets blocked, and the movement of food is slowed or stopped completely.


Spasmodic stomach

Gastro Oesophageal reflux

Weight loss

Diabetic retinopathy is caused because of injury to the blood vessels within the tissue of tissue of retina. Poor management of glucose is one of the risk factors. The blood vessels might swell and leak fluid and abnormal development of new blood vessels on the surface of the tissue layer is seen. The related connective tissue may contract and detach from retina. Symptoms in initial stages embrace floaters, blurriness, dark areas of vision and difficulty in detecting colours. There is no cure for diabetic retinopathy however will be treated optical laser treatments and surgical removal of vitreous gel (vitrectomy) for good vision. There are four stages in diabetic retinopathy which are classified as mild, moderate and retina.

Gestational diabetes, if not carefully managed, can bring about complications for both the baby and the mother. Such complications are associated with premature birth, respiratory distress syndrome, excessive birth weight, hypoglycemia, stillbirth, etc. Along with the baby, the mother is also at the risk of developing serious complications like preeclampsia, future diabetes, etc. Screening for gestational diabetes, losing extra weight before pregnancy, eating healthy foods, exercise, lifestyle changes are some of the preventive measures that can be adopted for diabetic complications during pregnancy.


Premature birth & Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Neonatal Hypoglycemia



Birth Trauma

Subsequent gestational diabetes